The trombone, in one form or another, already gets a good look over in the book, not out of favouritism (I’m a bass trombonist) but because the instrument is unique in its construction and is often misunderstood, even by experienced arrangers.
Arrangements often call for impossible slide ‘smears’. (Trombonists often call them ‘glisses’.) Smears are only feasible moving ‘horizontally’ through the 7 slide positions. Smears requiring the player to lip up or down the harmonic series (vertically in the diagrams below), moving the slide at the same time, can only be faked, although they can sometimes be faked fairly convincingly.
All 7th harmonic notes are slightly flat and the slide is pulled in a little to compensate. The first position Ab can be used on trombones with a touch spring.
The following diagram should be useful to non-trombonists:
There are opportunities for using alternative positions using the valve with Bb and F trombones, or both valves with double rotor bass trombones, to provide additional possibilities. For example, the low Bb in first position can also be found in a *lengthened third position with the F trigger on the third ‘air chamber’. The following diagram can be used to work out other cases (only the low register is shown because that is the region where the trigger becomes useful):
*There are only 6 slide positions when the F trigger is employed, so they are all further apart than the 7 positions of the regular instrument.
Please note that, although English style brass bands treat the tenor trombone as a transposing instrument, written in treble clef, these diagrams are in ‘concert’ pitch.
Jazz scores will sometimes indicate a ‘shake’ in the brass parts. Most trumpeters and trombonists play a lip ‘trill’ using the note itself and the note immediately above in the harmonic series (the ‘bugle’ notes) without using the valve or slide. This will give major or minor thirds in the middle register. Seconds occur in the higher register, where notes in the harmonic series are closer together.
Shakes are a ‘noise’ effect, hence the usual practice of not modifying the upper note to fit the tonality and of accepting the differing width of the resulting intervals in the various levels of orchestration.
(Strictly speaking, the term ‘trill’ implies an interval of a major second or less. In string writing an interval of a minor third and greater is called a ‘fingered tremolo’.)
A buddy of mine who studied trombone at a centre for orchestral studies in London showed me what can really be done using rapid shakes in the lower register (I’m still amazed when I think of it) but there’s a sensible limit. Shakes on trombone can only be guaranteed in the middle register and upwards because the intervals of the harmonic series become wider apart the lower you go. The interval between a fundamental (pedal note) and its first harmonic is an octave and the next adjacent upper note is still a perfect fifth away.
Shakes are absolute lip wreckers, by the way, and a great way of building lip muscles.
One solution, and not a bad idea anyway, is to have the trumpets only play the shake, especially if the trombone section is written in open harmony. Another possibility is for the trombones to play a wide, slow, slide vibrato. You can barely tell the difference in a loud ensemble.
DOUBLE VALVE BASS TROMBONES
The book mentions the addition of a second valve, pointing out that the limitations of the single valve bass trombone are eliminated (but see below). The first double valve bass trombone was probably built by Reynolds in the early 60’s, so it’s worth a moments admiration for the bass trombonists of old. Re-listen to those older Kenton and Sinatra recordings and gasp.
On single valve tenor and bass trombones (which are essentially the same except for bore and bell size) the low B a semitone above pedal Bb is missing. The C is already right at the end of the slide. It’s possible to obtain this note on the single valve instrument by extending the valve tuning slide out to the grooved mark sometimes provided (effectively tuning the F valve down to E) but you lose the really useful low C and bottom F in first position, cancelling out one of the advantages of the valve. Nevertheless, if there’s time to do this it’s worthwhile since nipping up to the B an octave above will wreck the arrangement, especially in slow moving ballads*. It’s possible to play the whole arrangement with the valve slide extended but all the trigger section slide positions will change. Pulling the valve tuning slide to E also lowers each slide position very slightly because, since the total length of the instrument has increased, the slide has to be moved a little more each time to maintain the pitch ratios. I just wanted you all to know how clever we bass trombonists are. Pulling to E gives a full chromatic run down to an octave below the B we’re talking about. In the real world you’ll never go there.
*With practise, the note can be played in the same position as low Eb with the F trigger. The late George Roberts, who played a single valve instrument, could lip the bottom C on the end of the slide down to B in some situations.
Jumping down suddenly to the bottom C (two ledger lines below the bass clef), found right at the end of the main slide on the single valve instrument, is difficult. I spent weeks practising little else and progress was slow.
The two valves of most double valve instruments jointly provide first position low D with the result that the elusive bottom C is also obtainable with the top of the slide extended to approximately opposite the rim of the bell, which is a little shorter than fourth position on the standard trombone. It’s called ‘third’ position with the two plugs depressed. There are six slide positions when the F valve is used and five when both valves are used.
The second plug can be used alone on independent systems but there’s a school of thought that prefers the dependent system, where the F valve alone or both valves together are the only options. The argument goes that the resistance through the valves is less. It is, but the effect is more likely to be felt by the player than the listener. Most independent system bass trombones give a Gb in first position when the second valve only is used. I find the independent system useful sometimes.
Some instruments have the second valve tuned to G and others provide a removable crook, giving the player a choice.
Most bass trombonists choose the double valve instrument nowadays, but a number of top bass trombonists never changed to the double valve instrument because of its extra weight, which can quickly tire the left hand and arm. In short, it isn’t correct to say that the single valve instrument is obsolete.
One of the most difficult aspects of learning to play the bass trombone is the development of a controlled, round sound, especially at low volume. Anyone can get that parade ground rasp.
Breath control is another important part of the daily practise routine. The amount of air that disappears down that big throated mouthpiece is awesome. In a routine medical it emerged that my chest expansion is double the average. This is probably true of all players of low brass instruments. The ability to snatch a breath imperceptibly is important.
Trombonists playing in orchestras may occasionally meet intonation problems when the lower strings play double stops. For a full explanation of this, ask an acoustics expert. Double stops are effective in solos but orchestral string parts should generally be written divisi.
Many other tuning methods were chosen during the development of the bass trombone. For more information on this visit http://www.yeodoug.com/resources/faq/faq_text/valves.html